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  Fri Mar 03


Astoundingly, for most of our history America’s nickname for Pit Bulls was “The Nanny Dog”. For generations if you had children and wanted to keep them safe you wanted a pit bull, the dog that was the most reliable of any breed with children or adults.
The Nanny Dog is now vilified by a media that always wants a demon dog breed to frighten people and LHASA-APSO BITES MAN just doesn’t sell papers. Before pit bulls it was Rottweilers, before Rottweilers it was Dobermans, and before them German Shepherds. Each breed in it’s order were deemed too vicious and unpredictable to be around people. Each time people wanted laws to ban them. It is breathtakingly ironic that the spotlight has turned on the breed once the symbol of our country and our national babysitter.
In temperance tests (the equivalent of how many times your kid can poke your dog in the eye before it bites him) of all breeds the most tolerant was the Golden Retriever. The second most tolerant was the pit bull.
Pit Bull’s jaws do not lock, they do not have the most powerful bite among dogs (Rottweilers have that honor) they are not naturally human aggressive (in fact pit bull puppies prefer human company to their mother’s two weeks before all other dogs), and they feel as much pain as any other breed (accidentally step on one’s toe and you’ll see).
The most tolerant, patient, gentle breed of dogs is now embarrassingly portrayed as the most dangerous. It would be funny if the new reputation did not mean 6,000 are put to death every day, by far the highest number of any other breed euthanized.
That’s a lot of babysitters.
(Pictured: As you’ll see, from the richest to the poorest and everything in between, in America the pit bull was the dog for kids. There are few things quite as obnoxious as rich parents. Be it a $3000 stroller or Louis Vuitton diaper bags the well off don’t want their little angels to be seen with anything an average middle class rugrat might have, let alone a child who might be, gasp, POOR! So is it now, so ever has it been in America.
In America one dog breed historically became known as the dog for people who are afraid of dogs.
One dog breed achieved such a rock solid reputation with children that for 150 years it was known as America’s “Nanny Dog”.
One dog breed became so trusted that despite the fact that no Kennel Club or Association recognized it, despite the fact that it could be found on the poorest farms and bleakest city neighborhoods with kids who didn’t know where their next meal was coming from, rich people acquired them in droves because they were simply the safest, most tolerant breed to have around their gilded progeny.
Rich, poor, and everything in between, until recently Americans agreed that there were only a CERTAIN TYPE of people who would own a Pit Bull…
America’s Nanny Dog is the victim of a smear campaign that has turned common sense upside-down and robbed us of our historical memory. The dogs that we trusted with our children’s lives are now deemed too vicious to live among us. The dogs that in two World Wars were the symbol of the United States military itself are now ordered off its bases.
The Pit Bulls haven’t changed at all. Only the owners have.

  Sat Feb 18

Terms You Should Know about Animal Welfare

Acute Toxicity Test


A test designed to determine toxic effects within a short period of time (ranging from a few hours to the course of a day) after administering a specific dose (amount) of a test substance in one or more species. This test used to define certain toxic thresholds including minimum lethal dose (MLD), and the LD 50, or lethal dose that will kill 50% of the animals exposed. Substances are administered by mouth ("gavage" or force-feeding), by nose (inhalation), or skin ("dermal"); or injection into the bloodstream ("intravenous"), the abdomen ("intra-peritoneal"), or the muscles ("intra-muscular").

Animal Cruelty

Although the definition varies by state, generally, Animal cruelty occurs when someone intentionally injures or harms an animal or when a person willfully deprives an animal of food, water or necessary medical care.

Animal Hoarding or Collecting

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an individual keeps a large number of animals—sometimes more than 100—in his or her home, and neglects to care for the animals and the home environment; "collectors" are usually in extreme denial about the situation. Technically, hoarding can be considered a crime, as it is a form of neglect.

Animal Testing

When scientists, students or commercial firms (e.g. cosmetic companies) use animals for biological research. These experiments aim to determine the safety and effectiveness of drugs, vaccines and products, researching how the human body works or fights disease or for educational purposes.

Animal Welfare Act

Passed into law in 1966, ensures that pets and animals used in research and for exhibition purposes are provided humane care and treatment. The act also assures the humane treatment of animals during transportation in commerce and outlaws the sale or use of stolen animals.

Battery Cage

A wire cage less than 16 inches wide where four or five hens are kept their entire lives—very tight quarters. These cages are lined up in rows and stacked several levels high on factory farms. It's been outlawed by the EU, but it's still allowed in the US.


The burning of a mark onto cattle or pigs using an extremely hot iron stamp, or “brand,” pressed hard into the animal’s flesh for several seconds without any pain killers.

Breeding Stock

Dogs that are kept in cages and are bred over and over again for years, without human companionship. They usually get very little health care and get no comfort. Once they can't breed anymore, they are often killed, abandoned or sold.


Chickens raised to be eaten on factory farms.

Bull Hook

A tool used to train and manage elephants. According to accounts by several former Ringling Bros. employees and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), elephants that perform in Ringling Bros. circuses are repeatedly beaten with sharp bull hooks.


An event performed in Spain, Portugal, and parts of Latin America where a fighting bull is engaged in a series of tricks and maneuvers. Usually, the bullfighter kills the bull with a sword. Bullfighting is banned in many places including some cities in Spain. Supporters of bullfighting argue that it is a culturally important tradition, while concerned with animal welfare argue that it is a blood sport because of the suffering of the bull and horses during the bullfight.

Canned Hunts

A practice in which hunters pay to shoot and kill exotic animals in a confined area from which they are unable to escape.

Charreadas (also Charrerias)

Rodeos popular in Mexico and the American Southwest which have components such as bull-tailing and horse-tripping which are considered by many to be forms of animal cruelty. Horse-tripping has been banned in California, Texas, New Mexico and Maine.


A blood sport in which two roosters specifically bred to fight are placed beak to beak in a small ring and encouraged to fight to the death as a spectacle.

Crush Act

A federal law that prohibits people from knowingly creating, selling or possessing depictions of animal cruelty with the intent to place them in interstate or foreign commerce for financial gain.


The cutting through bone, cartilage and soft tissue to remove the top half and the bottom third of a chicken’s, turkey’s or duck’s beak. It's usually done to stop the birds from pecking out feathers and engaging in cannibalism which happens in stressed, overcrowded birds in factory farms.


Surgically amputating part of the last bone in an animal's toes. The surgery is non-reversible, and the animal suffers significant pain during recovery. Declawing has been outlawed in many countries in Europe.

Dog Fighting

An illegal betting contest in which two dogs are placed in a pit to fight each until the last dog is standing.


Animals headed for slaughter who become too sick or injured to walk unassisted.

Draize Tests

A test that is usually performed in rabbits to determine the ability of a chemical to irritate the skin and eye after an acute exposure. For the dermal irritation test, rabbits are prepared by removal of fur on the back by electric clipper. The test chemical is applied to the skin under four covered gauze patches. Occasionally, the test chemical may be applied to abraded skin. The degree of skin irritation is scored at various time intervals after the application. To determine the degree of eye irritation, the test chemical is instilled into one eye (usually 0.01 ml). The eye of the rabbit is then examined at various time intervals to score degree of irritation. Because of its controversial nature, the use of the Draize test in the U.S. and Europe has declined in recent years.

Ear Cropping

The cropping of a purebred dog's ears to conform to a breed standard. Although this unnecessary cosmetic surgery is regularly performed by veterinarians, it is often done by untrained individuals without anesthesia in non-sterile environments.

Factory Farm

A large-scale industrial site where many animals raised for food—mainly chickens, turkeys, cows and pigs—are confined and treated with hormones and antibiotics to maximize growth and prevent disease. The animals lead short, painful lives; factory farms are also associated with various environmental hazards.

Felony Cruelty

Animal cruelty is considered a crime in all 50 states. But in some states it is taken more seriously-and can carry a felony charge, rather than a misdemeanor.

Feral Cat

A cat too poorly socialized to be handled and who cannot be placed into a typical pet home; a sub-population of free-roaming cats.

Foie Gras

A food item, considered a gourmet delicacy, produced from the liver of ducks or geese who have been force-fed enormous quantities of food two or three times per day through a pipe inserted into the bird's esophagus. The force-feeding process is done for three to four weeks before slaughter and can result in the rupture of internal organs, respiratory difficulties, infection and premature death.

Forced Molting

Process by which egg-laying hens are starved for up to 14 days, exposed to changing light patterns and given no water in order to shock their bodies into molting. It is common for 5% to 10% of hens to die during this process.

Hog-Dog Fighting (also Hog-Baiting or Hog-Dog Rodeos)

A blood sport in which a hog or feral pig is mauled by a trained fighting dog in an enclosed pen. Because its legality, as determined by state anti-cruelty laws, can be vague, many states, particularly in the American South where hog-dog fighting is more common, have passed laws specifically criminalizing it.

Intentional Cruelty

Intentional cruelty occurs when an individual purposely inflicts physical harm or injury on an animal; usually an indicator of a serious human behavior problem.

Internet Hunting (also Remote-Controlled or Computer-Assisted Hunting)

Combines video shooting games with the power of Internet technology to allow a remote computer user to kill real animals. At the game ranch that the “hunters” see on their monitors, a gun is mounted on a robotic tripod controlled by their computer mouse. Animals are lured within close range with food, at which time the armchair hunter can line up a shot and “fire” at will. Legislation has been passed to ban Internet hunting in many states.

Killer Buyers

Middlemen who travel from horse auction to horse auction, purchasing any horse they can. They eventually sell these animals to slaughterhouses for human consumption, but regularly subject horses to cruel and inhumane treatment-i.e. beating them, depriving them of food and water.

Leg Hold Trap

This steel-jaw trap is most often used to trap wild animals that are killed for their fur, such as beavers, lynx, bobcats and otters. Trapped animals usually do not die instantly, and are left to suffer intense pain, dehydration and starvation. Sometimes dogs and cats who are allowed to roam outdoors are also caught and killed in these traps.


The failure to provide an animal with the most basic of requirements of food, water, shelter and veterinary care. Neglect is often the result of simple ignorance on the animal owner's part and may be handled by requiring the owner to correct the situation.

Neutering (AKA Castration)

The surgical removal of the reproductive glands (testes) of the male animal.

Pound Seizure

The transfer or sale of shelter animals to research facilities of any kind, including those that engage in scientific research and experimentation. As of 2004, 14 states and many communities prohibit pound seizure either by state law or local regulation.


A hormone replacement therapy drug made from pregnant mares' urine (PMU), collected from horses who are confined in stalls for half the year, strapped to urine collection funnels.

Puppy Mill/Kitty Mill

Breeding facilities that produce large numbers of purebred dogs and cats. The animals are regularly sold to pet shops across the country. Documented problems of puppy mills include over-breeding, inbreeding, poor veterinary care and overcrowding.


A form of abuse to show horses where a mechanical or chemical agent is applied to the lower leg or hoof of a horse, for the purpose of "enhancing" the animal's gait, forcing him to throw his front legs up and out.


A currently or recently owned dog or cat that may be lost; usually well socialized but may become wary over time. A stray's kittens or pups may be feral.

Spaying (AKA Ovario-Hysterectomy)

The surgical removal of the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes) of the female animal.

Spent Hen

A classification of female fowl after one or two years of producing eggs at an unnaturally high rate. No longer financially profitable for factory farmers, they are slaughtered.

Tail Docking

When a purebred dog's tail is cut to conform to a breed standard. Although this cosmetic surgery is performed by veterinarians, it is often done by amateurs, without anesthesia, in non-sterile environments.

The 3 Rs

Methods used in animal research as an attempt to alleviate a research animal's pain and suffering. Researchers are required to consider using reduction alternatives (methods that reduce the number of animals needed in a study), refinement alternatives (methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain and distress and enhance animal well-being) and replacement alternatives (finding means other than using animals to achieve the goals of the study).


An operation, performed on cats, which severs the tendons in the toes so that the cat is unable to extend his/her nails to scratch. Owners who choose to have this surgery performed must clip their cat’s nails regularly, as the cat is unable to maintain them him/herself.


The act of chaining/tying an animal, usually a dog, to a stationary object as a means of confinement. Tethering is a risk factor for aggressive behavior and dog bites.

Trap/Neuter/Return (AKA TNR)

A method of managing feral cat colonies that involves trapping the animals, spaying or neutering them, vaccinating them (ideally) and returning them to where they were found.

White Veal

From birth to slaughter at five months, calves used to produce "formula-fed" or "white" veal are confined to two-foot-wide crates and chained to inhibit movement. They are fed an iron-and fiber-deficient diet resulting in anemia; the lack of exercise retards muscle development, resulting in pale, tender meat.


Literally, “vivisection” means the cutting of or operation on a living animal, and historically referred only to experiments that involved the dissection of live animals. The terms is now used to refer to any animal experimentation especially if considered to cause distress to the subject.

Source: ASPCA

  Mon Feb 06

Parts of the Western Saddle

  Mon Feb 06

Dogs Can Detect if someone has Cancer

Dogs can detect if someone has cancer

Dogs can detect if someone has cancer just by sniffing the person's breath, a new study shows.

Dogs can identify chemical traces in the range of parts per trillion. Previous studies have confirmed the ability of trained dogs to detect skin-cancer melanomas by sniffing skin lesions.

Also, some researchers hope to prove dogs can detect prostate cancer by smelling patients' urine.

Lung- and breast-cancer patients are known to exhale patterns of biochemical markers in their breath.

"Cancer cells emit different metabolic waste products than normal cells," Broffman said. "The differences between these metabolic products are so great that they can be detected by a dog's keen sense of smell, even in the early stages of disease."

  Fri Feb 03

St. Bernard

While I was Researching The St. Bernard. I found this:

Barry der Menschenretter (1800–1814), also known as Barry, was a dog of a breed which was later called the St. Bernard that worked as a mountain rescue dog in Switzerland for the Great St Bernard Hospice. He predates the modern St. Bernard, and was lighter built than the modern breed. He has been described as the most famous St. Bernard, as he was credited with saving more than 40 lives during his lifetime.

The legend surrounding him was that he was killed while attempting a rescue; however, this is untrue. Barry retired to Bern, Switzerland and after his death his body was passed into the care of the Natural History Museum of Bern. His skin has been preserved through taxidermy although his skull was modified in 1923 to match the Saint Bernard of that time period. His story and name have been used in literary works, and a monument to him stands in the Cimetière des Chiens near Paris. At the hospice one dog has always been named Barry in his honor and since 2004 the Foundation Barry du Grand Saint Bernard has been set up to take over the responsibility for breeding dogs from the hospice.
St. Bernard dogs are no longer used for Alpine rescues, the last recorded instance of which was in 1955. As late as 2004, the Great St Bernard Hospice still maintained 18 of the dogs for reasons of tradition and sentiment. In that year the Barry Foundation created breeding kennels for the breed at the town of Martigny down the Pass, and purchased the remaining dogs from the Hospice.

The animals bred by the Foundation are trained to participate in a variety of dog sports including carting and weight pulling. The dogs at the Barry Foundation are reportedly smaller than the average St Bernard.

Known as a classic example of a Gentle Giant, the Saint Bernard is calm, patient and sweet with adults, and especially children. However St. Bernards, like all very large dogs, must be well socialized with people and other dogs in order to prevent fearfulness and any possible aggression or territoriality. The biggest threat to small children is being knocked over by this breed's larger size. Overall they are a sweet, gentle, calm, loyal and affectionate breed, and if socialized are very friendly. Because of its large adult size, it is essential that proper training and socialization begin while the St. Bernard is still a puppy, so as to avoid the difficulties that normally accompany training large dogs. An unruly St. Bernard may present problems for even a strong adult, so control needs to be asserted from the beginning of the dog's training. While generally not instinctively protective, a St. Bernard may bark at strangers, and their size makes them good deterrents against possible intruders

  Sat Jan 14

Pleuropneumonia in Horses - shipping sickness

Over recent years, quite a number of valuable horses have developed acute infection within the lung and chest commonly referred to as 'travel sickness' or 'shipping disease'.
Horses that have raced or been subjected to strenuous exercise immediately prior to long distance travelling are particularly prone to developing pleuropneumonia, which if not recognised and treated early, is invariably debilitating and may be fatal.


Cause   Top Low grade viral infection, breathing contaminated air in poorly ventilated transports and the stress of travel appear to be the main underlying causes.
Travel stress includes:
  • noise
  • cramped spaces
  • high speed driving
  • swaying of trailers, and
  • inadequate rest stops.
    'Short tying' the head can lead to the spread of bacteria from the nose and mouth area into the deeper parts of the respiratory tract, predisposing the horse to travel sickness. The risk of travel sickness is increased if horses are unable to put their heads down to drain normal respiratory secretions.
    Travel sickness is also a problem in horses travelled by air over long distances. Studies have shown that general airborne contamination is highest at the rear of the aircraft and transports, and horses travelling at the rear are most likely to develop the condition.
    Transporting horses which are suffering from underlying viral disease, or are tired and dehydrated after racing or competition, increases the risk.
    Dusty feed and hay containing bacterial germs and moulds, and breathing in dust from roads, results in inhaled contamination, which overloads the lungs' defence system. Unfortunately, many modern 'streamlined' floats and horse transports are often poorly ventilated.
Symptoms   Top It is important to watch for and recognise the tell-tale signs early, especially during the few days following a long trip.
Horses with early pleuropneumonia:
  • become depressed
  • develop a fever
  • go off their feed, and
  • pant in shallow, rapid breaths.
    Early signs may be confused with colic, as horses resist moving, stand with the front legs apart, and paw the ground. As the condition worsens, the horse may turn to look at its painful chest.
    Immediate veterinary advice should be obtained. Unfortunately, once pleuropneumonia worsens, it is difficult to treat, and can result in death within 3-5 days.
Prevention   Top
  1. Always ensure that horses are cooled down, and given a drink before long distance travel. In very tired, dehydrated or stressed horses, long distance travel of over 12 hours duration should be delayed until they recover, preferably at least overnight.
  2. Ensure ventilation is sufficient to keep air flowing without causing chills. An adequate rate of air change is important in large transports carrying a number of horses over long distances.
  3. Provide dampened feed or pellets to reduce dust and airborne contamination. Lightly dampen hay, in particular, by wrapping a biscuit of hay in a wet chaff bag for 2-4 hours to reduce dust and other airborne contamination. This will increase palatability of hay and provide additional moisture during long trips. Locate feeders below chest bar height.
  4. Do not tie the head too short - give the horse as much space as possible to feel comfortable and be able to put its head down. Stallion dividers may be required to prevent horses squabbling during transport.
  5. Avoid transporting horses suffering from respiratory disease. If a horse has symptoms, do not transport it as it may infect others during the trip.
  6. Ensure the trailer is in good condition and level on the towbar. Drive steadily and smoothly. Keep the back flap down to reduce intake of swirling dust on dirt roads.
  7. Stop every 3-4 hours and open the trailer doors. If possible, unload and allow the horse(s) to walk around, or preferably graze or feed with the head down for at least 15-20 minutes. Provide access to drinking water at rest stops. A 60ml dose of Recharge over the tongue will replace electrolytes and stimulate drinking.
  8. If a horse has competed or raced hard, give it a day off after a long trip. Turning the horse into a grassy green paddock to graze with its head down for a few hours, or putting dampened feed in a bin at floor level, will encourage drainage of the respiratory system.
  9. After travelling a horse over a long distance, keep a careful watch for loss of appetite, depression, fever and obvious discomfort for the first few days. It is a good idea to monitor the horse's temperature morning and night for at least 3 days after long trips, and seek vet advice if the temperature is elevated (the normal body temperature of an adult horse is 36.5-38.5°C).
  Fri Jan 13

New York Veterinarian Camilo Sierra Suspended

A New York-based veterinarian has been suspended by regulators for falsely submitting health certificates for three horses seeking to enter the grounds at Aqueduct Racetrack.

Stewards with the New York State Gaming Commission on Dec. 26 handed Dr. Camilo Sierra a 30-day suspension and $1,500 fine for an Oct. 31 incident. Sierra agreed to the fine, according to agency records, waiving his right to a hearing and, in return, getting the one-month suspension reduced to 20 days. 

The NYSGC said Sierra was suspended and fined for submitting health certificates to New York Racing Association security staff for three horses that he had not examined: New York BourbonSky Ace, and Too Much Malibu. An NYSGC database lists other fines levied against Sierra over the years, but the site does not include details of those incidents.

New York Bourbon and Too Much Malibu are unraced juveniles and Sky Ace is a 3-year-old maiden owned by Alex Kazdan and trained by Dominic Giglio Jr.

On Dec. 27 Sierra began serving the suspension that will last until Jan. 15, during which time the Long Island-based veterinarian will not be permitted to "directly or indirectly" be involved in any aspect of care of a horse on a race track.

Sierra was first given a license to practice veterinary medicine in New York in 1992, state records show.

  Fri Jan 13

Horses Soothe Kids with Autism

Horses Soothe Kids with Autism

The animals' motion may correct rhythm coordination problems


Animals have helped many kids with autism improve their speech and social skills, but these cases have been largely isolated. Now the first scientific study of horse therapy finds its many benefits may have to do with rhythm.

A study of 42 children with autism, six to 16 years old, found that riding and grooming horses significantly bettered behavioral symptoms. Compared with kids who had participated in nonanimal therapy, those exposed to horses showed more improvement in social skills and motor skills, rated via standard behavioral assessment surveys, according to the study published in the February issue of Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Psychologist Robin Gabriels of the University of Colorado Denver, who led the study, speculates that the calming, rhythmic motion of the horses played a role.

Rhythmic coordination issues underlie all the symptoms of autism, including repetitive behaviors and difficulty communicating, comments Robert Isenhower, a researcher at Rutgers University who was not involved with the study. Using drumming games, Isenhower has found that children with autism struggle more than typically developing children to keep a beat. This impairment affects unconscious social behaviors that most of us take for granted, such as pausing after questions or walking in step with others. “I think the horse might serve as a surrogate motor system for individuals with autism,” he says.

  Wed Jan 04

What is a Donkey? Are a donkey and jackass the same ?

Pertaining to animals, the answer is yes.

A donkey, an ass, and a burro, are all the same name for the same beast. Jackass, is merely the name for a male ass, while jennett, not jillass, is the name for a female ass.

The Ancient Egyptians domesticated the sturdy ass over 5,000 years ago, for use as transportation, and to transport their belongings and commodities. This form of cheap labor, of which there are many kinds, spread throughout the world, and uses of the ass expanded to include the skin off of the ass, the meat off of it's bones, and the actual export of the ass as a commodity.

The Somali wild ass, hailing from Somalia and elsewhere in Africa, is a prime example of the versatility of the ass, as these shy animals, living together in groups of 5-20, adapt well to the desert climate, and can exist on a diet of dry grass and shrubs. The over-depletion of the versatile Somali wild ass, however, explains its rarity today. Asian wild asses, for example, the Syrian wild ass, suffered a similar fate, and can no longer be found in Syria, and in other parts of the Middle East. Man has hunted the Nubian wild ass, a northeastern African type, once living from the Nile to the Red Sea, almost to the point of extinction. Certain groups are attempting to protect the few remaining asses from being hunted and killed.

The modern ass, a descendent of the Nubian wild ass, meets the same transportation needs in Mexico, and in Central America, as it did in Ancient Egypt.

A jennet is normally pregnant for about 12 months, though the gestation period varies from 11 to 14 months,[5] and usually gives birth to a single foal. Births of twins are rare, though less so than in horses.[5] About 1.7 percent of donkey pregnancies result in twins; both foals survive in about 14 percent of those.[citation needed]

Although jennets come into heat within 9 or 10 days of giving birth, their fertility remains low and it is usual to wait one or two further oestrous cycles before rebreeding. Because of this and the longer gestation period, donkey breeders do not expect to obtain a foal every year, as horse breeders often do, but may plan for three foals in four years.[5]

Donkeys can interbreed with other members of the Equidae family, and are commonly interbred with horses. The hybrid between a jack and a mare is a mule, valued as a working and riding animal in many countries. Some large donkey breeds such as the Asino di Martina Franca, the Baudet de Poitou and the Mammoth Jack are raised only for mule production. The hybrid between a stallion and a jennet is a hinny, and is less common. Like other inter-species hybrids, mules and hinnies are usually sterile.[5]

  Tue Nov 14

Calories Burned in Horse Activities

Whoever thinks horse riding and care isn't excercise never owned a horse! Between the shoveling and the grooming and the training, you're burning up a lot of calories-- for example, riding at a trot burns more calories than a brisk walk!

Horse Activities - Calories burned per hour:

ACTIVITY: For 130 lb person: For 155 lb person: For 190 lb person:
Shoveling 354 cal/hr 422 cal/hr 518 cal/hr
General Horse Riding: 236 cal/hr 281 cal/hr 345 cal/hr

Riding horse at the walk:
148 cal/hr 176 cal/hr 216 cal/hr
Riding horse at the trot: 384 cal/hr 457 cal/hr 561 cal/hr
Riding horse at a gallop: 472 cal/hr 563 cal/hr 690 cal/hr
Horse Grooming 354 cal/hr 422 cal/hr 518 cal/hr
Baling hay/cleaning barn: 472 cal/hr 563 cal/hr 690 cal/hr
Shoveling Grain 325 cal/hr 387 cal/hr 474 cal/hr
Fencing 354 cal/hr 422 cal/hr 518 cal/hr
Polo 472 cal/hr 563 cal/hr 690 cal/hr
Hiking, cross country (if your horse is hard to catch...) 354 cal/hr 422 cal/hr 518 cal/hr
Brisk walking 4 MPH 236 cal/hr 281 cal/hr 345 cal/hr
Walking, carrying 15 lb load: 207 cal/hr 246 cal/hr 302 cal/hr
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